English Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:Short description Template:Pp-vandalism Template:Use dmy dates Template:Infobox website

The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Founded on 15 January 2001, it is the first edition of Wikipedia and, Template:As of, has the most articles of any of the editions.<ref>about 10 percent more than the next in rank, the Cebuano Wikipedia. See m:List of Wikipedias.</ref> As of August 2020, Template:Percentage of articles in all Wikipedias belong to the English-language edition. This share has gradually declined from more than 50 percent in 2003, due to the growth of Wikipedias in other languages.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> As of 5 August 2020, there are 3 articles on the site,<ref>The number of articles on the English Wikipedia is shown by the MediaWiki variable {{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}, with all Wikipedias as total {{NUMBEROF|ARTICLES|total}} = Template:NUMBEROF.</ref> having surpassed the 5 million mark on 1 November 2015.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> In October 2015, the total volume of the compressed texts of the English Wikipedia's articles amounted 11.5 gigabytes.<ref>See size of downloads at Wikipedia:Database download and a list of historical sizes here</ref>

The Simple English Wikipedia is a variation in which most of the articles use only basic English vocabulary (simplewiki). There is also the Old English (Ænglisc/Anglo-Saxon) Wikipedia (angwiki). Community-produced news publications include The Signpost.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008/>

Pioneering edition

Template:See also

The English Wikipedia was the first Wikipedia edition and has remained the largest. It has pioneered many ideas as conventions, policies or features which were later adopted by Wikipedia editions in some of the other languages. These ideas include "featured articles",<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> the neutral-point-of-view policy,<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> navigation templates,<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> the sorting of short "stub" articles into sub-categories,<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation and arbitration,<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> and weekly collaborations.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref>

The English Wikipedia has adopted features from Wikipedias in other languages. These features include verified revisions from the German Wikipedia (dewiki) and town population-lookup templates from the Dutch Wikipedia (nlwiki).

Although the English Wikipedia stores images and audio files, as well as text files, many of the images have been moved to Wikimedia Commons with the same name, as passed-through files. However, the English Wikipedia also has fair-use images and audio/video files (with copyright restrictions), most of which are not allowed on Commons.

Many of the most active participants in the Wikimedia Foundation, and the developers of the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia, are English users.

Users and editors

Steven Pruitt, as of January 2020, has made more edits on the English Wikipedia than any other editor
English Wikipedia statistics
Number of user accounts Number of articles Number of files Number of administrators
1 3 0 1

Wikipedians

The English Wikipedia reached 4,000,000 registered user accounts on 1 April 2007,<ref name="4,564,000">Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2007-04-02/News and notes. Retrieved 20 April 2007</ref> just a little over a year since the millionth Wikipedian registered an account in late February 2006.<ref name="1,000,000">Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2006-02-27/News and notes. Retrieved 20 April 2007</ref>

Over 800,000 editors have edited Wikipedia more than 10 times.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> Over 30,000 editors perform more than 5 edits per month, and a little over 3,000 perform more than 100 edits per month.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> By 24 November 2011, a total of 500 million edits had been performed on the English Wikipedia.Template:Citation needed

As the largest Wikipedia edition, and because English is such a widely used language, the English Wikipedia draws many users and editors whose native language is not English. Such users may seek information from the English Wikipedia rather than the Wikipedia of their native language because the English Wikipedia tends to contain more information about general subjects. Successful collaborations have been developed between non-native English speakers who successfully add content to the English Wikipedia and native English speakers who act as copyeditors for them.Template:Citation needed

Arbitration committee

Script error: No such module "main". The English Wikipedia has an arbitration committee (also known as ArbCom) that consists of a panel of editors that imposes binding rulings with regard to disputes between other editors of the online encyclopedia.<ref name="AU">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> The committee was created by Jimmy Wales on 4 December 2003 as an extension of the decision-making power he had formerly held as owner of the site.<ref name="Wales1">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref><ref name="SSRN">Template:Cite journal</ref>

When initially founded, the committee consisted of 12 arbitrators divided into three groups of four members each.<ref name="Wales1"/><ref name="Fortune">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> Since then, the committee has gradually expanded its membership to 18 arbitrators.<ref name="Wales2">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref>Template:Failed verification

As with other aspects of the English Wikipedia, some of Wikipedia's sister projects have emulated the arbitration committee with their own similar versions.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> For instance, in 2007, an arbitration committee was founded on the German Wikipedia called the Template:Interlanguage link multi.<ref name="dewiki-2007">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref>

Controversies

Script error: No such module "main". Template:See also

Threats against high schools

Several incidents of threats of violence against high schools on Wikipedia have been reported in the mainstream press.<ref name="LATimes">Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="ABCLocal">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref><ref name="LATimes2">Template:Cite news</ref> The Glen A. Wilson High School was the subject of such a threat in 2008,<ref name="LATimes" /><ref name="ABCLocal" /><ref name="LATimes2" /> and a 14-year-old was arrested for making a threat against Niles West High School on Wikipedia in 2006.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Disputed articles

A 2013 study from Oxford University concluded that the most disputed articles on the English Wikipedia tended to be broader issues, while on other language Wikipedias the most disputed articles tended to be regional issues; this is due to the English language's status as a global lingua franca, which means that many who edit the English Wikipedia do not speak English as a native language.Template:Clarify The study stated that the most disputed entries on the English Wikipedia were: George W. Bush, anarchism, Muhammad, list of WWE personnel, global warming, circumcision, United States, Jesus, race and intelligence, and Christianity.<ref name=Gross>Gross, Doug. "Wiki wars: The 10 most controversial Wikipedia pages." CNN. 24 July 2013. Retrieved on 26 July 2013. Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref>

Varieties of English

One controversy in the English Wikipedia concerns which national variety of the English language is to be preferred, with the most commonly advocated candidates being American English and British English.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> Perennial suggestions range from standardizing upon a single form of English to forking the English Wikipedia project. A style guideline states, "the English Wikipedia has no general preference for a major national variety of the language" and "an article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation uses the appropriate variety of English for that nation".<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> An article should use spelling and grammar variants consistently; for example, color and colour are not to be used in the same article, since they represent American and British English, respectively. The guide also states that an article must remain in its original national variant.

There has been a similar issue in the Chinese-language Wikipedia concerning regional differences in writing. Efforts toward a language fork for Portuguese Wikipedia have failed, but those regarding Norwegian Wikipedia succeeded.

Andrew Lih wrote that the English Wikipedia "didn't have the chance to go through a debate over whether there should be a British English Wikipedia or an American English Wikipedia" because the English Wikipedia was the original edition.<ref>Lih, p. 135.</ref>Template:Clarify Editors agreed to use U.S. spellings for primarily American topics and British spellings for primarily British topics. In 2009 Lih wrote, "No doubt, American spellings tend to dominate by default just because of sheer numbers."<ref>Lih, p. 136.</ref>

Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality

Script error: No such module "main".

A "WikiProject" is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia. These groups often focus on a specific topic area (for example, women's history), a specific location or a specific kind of task (for example, checking newly created pages). The English Wikipedia currently has over 2,000 WikiProjects and activity varies.<ref>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref>

In 2007, in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.<ref name="WP 1.0 editorial team 1">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> Articles are rated by WikiProjects. The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" (very short pages), followed by "Start", "C" and "B" (in increasing order of quality). Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either "good article", "A" or the highest, "featured article". Of the about 4.4 million articles and lists assessed as of March 2015, a little more than 5,000 (0.12%) are featured articles, and fewer than 2,000 (0.04%) are featured lists. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia.<ref name="FMonday feat article patterns 1">Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref><ref name="IBM feat articles hidden pattern 1">Template:Cite journal</ref>

The articles can also be rated as per "importance" as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are 5 importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "???" for unclassified/uncertain level. For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels.

The Wikipedia Version 1.0 Editorial Team has developed a table (shown below) that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance, on the English Wikipedia. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart. The software regularly auto-updates the data.

Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors.<ref name="Poderi Giacomo feat articles 1">Poderi, Giacomo, Wikipedia and the Featured Articles: How a Technological System Can Produce Best Quality Articles, Master thesis, University of Maastricht, October 2008.</ref> A 2010 study found unevenness in quality among featured articles and concluded that the community process is ineffective in assessing the quality of articles.<ref name="FMonday WP quality control 1">Template:Cite journal</ref>

Template:Pie chart

Template:Pie chart

User:WP 1.0 bot/Tables/OverallArticles Script error: No such module "Chart". Template:Selfref inline

Automatic quality assessment of Wikipedia articles is a known and wide scientific problem.<ref>Wikipedia Quality</ref> For example, as measures for assessing quality, it can be taken into the account number of the references, text length, number of images, sections, articles popularity and others.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

In 2019 the English Wikipedia has 1.7 million unique categories. The average article in this language version has 22 categories, while number of unique categories per articles ratio is 0.293. The largest number of articles has People (15%) and Life (9%) category. In English Wikipedia articles related to Philosophy and Crime has the highest average quality. Content about Philosophy is read more often and articles in Crime category have the highest authors' interest on average.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Graphics

Internal news publications

Template:See also

Community-produced news publications include The Signpost.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008>Template:Cite book</ref> The Signpost (previously known as The Wikipedia Signpost<ref name=Cohen2007>Template:Cite news</ref>) is the English Wikipedia's newspaper.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008/><ref name=Koebler2016>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name=Geoffroy2014>Template:Cite news</ref> It is managed by the Wikipedia community and is published online weekly.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008/><ref name=Dobusch2014>Template:Cite news</ref> Each edition contains stories and articles related to the Wikipedia community.<ref name=Rosen2013>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref><ref name=Jemielniak2014>Template:Cite book</ref> A wide range of editors contribute articles and other pieces.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008/> Some of the editors make minor changes in the existing contributions.

The publication was founded in January 2005 by Wikipedia administrator and later Chair of the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, Michael Snow.<ref name=AyersMatthews2008/><ref name=Cohen2007/><ref name=McCarthy2008>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> Originally titled The Wikipedia Signpost, it was later shortened to simply The Signpost.<ref name=Cohen2007/><ref name="okoli">Template:Cite journal</ref> The newspaper reports on Wikipedia events including Arbitration Committee rulings,<ref name="ayeletoz">Template:Cite journal</ref> Wikimedia Foundation issues,<ref name=ParoutisHeracleous2013>Template:Cite book</ref> and other Wikipedia-related projects.<ref name=Waters2010>Template:Cite book</ref> Snow continued to contribute as a writer to The Signpost until his appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation in February 2008.<ref name="congratulatesnow">Template:Cite news</ref>

Investigative journalism by The Signpost in 2015 on changes to freedom of panorama copyright restrictions in Europe was covered by publications in multiple languages including German,<ref name="germanpanorama">Template:Cite news</ref> Italian,<ref name="italianpanorama">Template:Cite news</ref> Polish,<ref name="wyborczapanorama">Template:Cite news</ref> and Russian.<ref name="prophotosrupanorama">Template:Cite news</ref> Wikipedia users Gamaliel and Go Phightins! became editors-in-chief of The Signpost in January 2015; prior editor-in-chief The ed17 noted that during his tenure the publication expanded its scope by including more reporting on the wider Wikimedia movement and English Wikipedia itself.<ref name="introducingyournew">Template:Cite news</ref> In a letter to readers upon the newspaper's tenth anniversary, the new co-editors-in-chief stressed the importance of maintaining independence from the Wikimedia Foundation in their reporting.<ref name="includesyou">Template:Cite news</ref>

The Signpost has been the subject of academic analysis in publications including Sociological Forum,<ref name="sociologicalforum">Template:Cite journal</ref> the social movements journal Interface,<ref name="interface">Template:Cite journal</ref> and New Review of Academic Librarianship;<ref name=Bayliss2013>Template:Cite journal</ref> and was consulted for data on Wikipedia by researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Dartmouth College.<ref name="yan2011">Template:Cite book</ref> It has garnered generally positive reception from media publications including The New York Times,<ref name="allthenews">Template:Cite news</ref> The Register,<ref name=Orlowski2016>Template:Cite news</ref> Nonprofit Quarterly,<ref name=McCambridge2016>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> and Heise Online.<ref name=Kleinz2016>Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".</ref> The book Wikipedia: The Missing Manual called The Signpost essential reading for ambitious new Wikipedia editors.<ref name=Broughton2008>Template:Cite book</ref>

Other past and present community news publications include the "WikiWorld" web comic, the Wikipedia Weekly podcast, and newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors. There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

See also

Footnotes

Template:Reflist

References

External links

Template:Sister project

Template:Wikipedia Template:Wikipedias